A brilliant impression of the definitive state from the edition of 1,211 (artist's edition of 36, deluxe edition of 75, standard edition of 1,100) published by Julius Meier-Graefe, Berlin, for the art review Pan, July 31, 1898, vol. IV. no. I, with the publisher’s letterpress credit line “HENRI-EDMOND CROSS, IN DEN CHAMPS-ELYSEES PAN IV I / FÜNFFARBIGE ORIGINALLITHOGRAPHIE” at the lower left edge; printed by Auguste Clot, Paris, 1898. This lithograph is one of just ten color prints in the Pointilist style which exist, eight of them drawn by Signac and two by Henri Edmond Cross. The concept of “Divisionism,” “Pointillism” or “Neo-Impressionism,” as it was variously called, was founded by a small group of painters intent on replacing the Impressionist painter’s spontaneous brushwork with formal stability and deliberate application. For this group, led by Georges Seurat, including Henri Edmond Cross and Maximilien Luce, Signac assumed the role of spokesman from the outset, articulating their ideas in his writings while practicing them in his art. The painters were seeking ways to achieve a greater purity and luminosity of color than could be found through mixing pigments. The idea of placing dots of pure color side by side was developed from the color theories of the author Charles Henry (1859-1926), a mathematician-physiologist-psychologist who invented a measurable system of aesthetics that could be applied to sight, sound and smell, as well as to language and emotions, in order to achieve a harmonious balance; his notion that harmony in art would foster social harmony became a central tenet of the philosophy of the Neo-Impressionists. The painters began to use dots of color placed side by side, rather than overpainted or mixed. Cross and Signac then applied the same idea to the use of dots of color in lithography, exploiting the fact that each color is printed separately. As in the paintings, the juxtaposition of colors in this manner as seen here in “In den Champs-Elysée” created a special quality of visual color effect and light.